Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (12 Marks)
(1) Today's woman is a highly self - directed person, alive to the sense of her dignity and the importance of her functions in the private domestic domain and the public domain of the world of work. Women are rational in approach, careful in handling situations and want to do things as best as possible. The Fourth World Conference of Women held in Beijing in September 1995 had emphasized that no enduring solution of found without the participation and empowerment of the women. The 1995 World Summit for social Development had also emphasized the pivotal role of women in eradicating poverty and mending the social fabric.
(2) The Constitution of India had conferred on women equal rights and opportunities - political, social, and educational and of employment - with men. Because of oppressive traditions, superstitions, exploitation and corruption, a majority of women are not allowed to enjoy the rights and opportunities, bestowed on them. One of the major reasons for this state of affairs is the lack of literacy and awareness among women. Education is the main instrument through which we can narrow down the prevailing inequality and accelerate the process of economic and political change in the status of women.
(3) The role of women in a society is very important. Women's education is the key to a better life in the future, A recent World Bank study says that educating girls in not a charity, it good economics and if developing nations are to eradicate poverty, they must educate the girls, The report says that the economic and social returns on investment in education of the girls considerably affect the human development index of the nation. Society would progress only if the status of women is respected and the presence of an educated woman in the family would ensure education of the family itself. Education and empowerment of women are closely related.
(4) Women's education has not received due care and attention from the planners and policy makers. The National Commission for Women has rightly pointed out that even after 50 years of independence; women continue to be treated as the single largest group of backward citizens of India. The role of women in overall development has not been fully understood nor has it been given its full weight in the struggle to eliminate poverty, hunger, injustice and inequality at the national level. Even when we are at the threshold of the 21st century, our society still discriminates against women in matters of their rights and privileges and prevents them from participating in the process of national and societal progress. Various Committees and Commissions have been constituted before and after the independence to evaluate the progress in women's education and to suggest ways and means to enhance the status of women. The female literacy rate has gone up in the 20th century from 0.6 percent in 1901 to 39.29 percent in 1991 but India still possesses the largest number of illiterate women in the world. The female literacy index for the year 1991 shows that there are eight States which fall below the national average. The most populous states of the country. UP. MP, Bihar and Rajasthan fall in the category of most backward States as far as female literacy is concerned.
(5) The prevailing cultural norms of gender behavior and the perceived domestic and reproductive roles of women tend to affect the education of the girls. Negative attitude towards sending girls to schools, restrictions on their mobility, early marriage, poverty and illiteracy of parents affect the girl's participation in education.
(6) Woman's political empowerment got a big boost with the Panchayati Raj Act of 1993 which gave them 30 percent reservation in Village Panchayats, Block Samities and Zila Parishads throughout the country. The National Commission for women was also set up in 1992 to act as a lobby for women's issues.
(7) The educational system is the only institution which can counteract the deep foundations of inequality of sexes that are built in the minds of people through the socialization process. Education is the most important instrument of human resource development Educational system should be used to revolutionise the traditional attitudes and inculcate new values of equality.
(a) (i) Mention any two attributes of a modern woman. (2 Marks)
(ii) Why are women's participation and empowerment considered Necessary? (2 Marks)
(iii) Which factors adversely affect the education of girls? (2 Marks)
(iv) What benefits did the women get with the enactment of the Panchayati Raj Act of 1993?
(v) By what process can we remove the sense of inequality of sexes from? The minds of the people?
(b) Pick out words from the passage which mean the same as each of the
Following: (1×3=3 Marks)
(i) Cruel and unfair (Para 2)Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : (8 Marks)
(ii) Remove (Para 3)
(iii) Full of people (Para 4)
Despite all the research, every one of us catches cold and most of us catch is frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest of all ailments sometimes seems ridiculous. Medical science regularly practices transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such killing diseases as typhus and the Plague. But the problem of common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet be done to solve it.
It is known that a cold is caused by one of a number of viral infections that affect the lining of the nose and other passages leading to the lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one or the other of a family of viruses known as rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has as yet been isolated.
There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections, viruses cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist's laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animals or plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture, in which bits of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even unsuspected.
The fact that we can catch cold repeatedly creates another difficulty. Usually a virus strikes only once and leaves the victim immune to further attacks. Still we do not gain immunity from colds. Why? It may possible be due to the fact that while other viruses get into the blood stream where anti - bodies can oppose them, the viruses causing cold attack cells only on the surface. Or it may be that immunity from one of the many different viruses does not guarantee protection from all the others. It seems, therefore, that we are likely to have to suffer colds for some time yet.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5 Marks)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made.