SECTION - A
A1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. Smoking is the major cause of mortality with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and is one of the factors causing death due to malignancies of larynx, oral cavity, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach and uterine cervix and coronary heart diseases.
2. Nicotine is the major substance present in the smoke that causes physical dependence. The additives do produce damage to the body—for example, ammonia can result in a I 00-fold increase in the ability of nicotine to enter into the smoke.
3. Levulinic acid, added to cigarettes to mask the harsh taste of the nicotine, can increase the binding of nicotine to brain receptors, which increases the ‘kick’ of nicotine.
4. Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette contains over 4000 chemicals and 40 carcinogens. It has long been known that tobacoo smoke is carcinogenic or cancer-causing.
5. The lungs of smokers collect an annual deposit of 1 to 1½ pounds of the gooey black material. Invisible gas phase of cigaretter smoke contains nitrogen, oxygen and toxic gases like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides. These gases are poisonous and in many cases interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen.
6. Like many carcinogenic compounds, they can act as tumour promoters or tumour initiators by acting directly on the genetic make-up of cells of the body leading to development of cancer.
7. During smoking, within the first 8—I 0 seconds, nicotine is absorbed through the lungs and quickly ‘moved’ into the bloodsstream and circulated throughout the brain. Nicotine can also enter the bloodstream through the mucos membranes that line the mouth (if tobacco is chewed) or nose (if snuff is used) and even through the skin. Our brain is made up of billions of nerve cells. They communicate with each other by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.
8. Nicotine is one of the most powerful nerve poisons and binds stereo-selec tively to nicotinic receptors located in the brain, autonomic ganglia, the medulla, neuro-muscular junctions. Located throughout the brain, they play a critical role in cognitive processes and memory.
9. The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which are involved in many functions including muscle movement, breathing, heart-rate, learning and memory. Nicotine, because of the similar structure with acetylcholine when it gets into the brain, attaches itself o acetylcholine sites and produces toxic effect.
10. In high concentrations, nicotine is more deadly. In fact one drop of purified
nicotine on the tongue will kill a person. It has been used as a pesticide for centuries.
11. Recent research studies suggest that acute nicotine administration would re suit in increased dopamine release from the brain, producing perceptions of plea sure and happiness, increased energy and motivation, increased alertness, in creased feeling of vigour during the early phase of smoking.
12. However, notwithstanding these superficial effects, research shows that the relationship between smoking and memory loss is strongest in people who smoke more than 20 cigarettes each day and this is not specific to the soclo-economic status, gender and a range of associated medical conditions. Smoking may speed up age related memory loss and the details are not yet clear. Some studies suggest that repeated exposure to high nicotinic smoke related to the ‘Brain-wiring’ is nothing but neuro-biochemistry that deals with complex interaction among genetic experience and bio-chemistry of brain-cells.
13. ‘No’ is a unique molecule which plays a role in a number of beneficial and some of the harmful brain and body mechanisms, for example, synapse formation, drug tolerance and local regulation of cerebral blood flow, Parkinson’s disease etc. It is also found that people who smoke more cigarettes a day have poorer memories in middle age than non-smokers.
14. Some experts say that smoking is linked to memory problems because it contributes to narrowed arteries that restrict blood-flow to the brain. One of the causes of memory decline in relation to the brain function could be the nerve cell death or decreased density of interconnected neuronal network due to loss dendrites, the tiny filaments which connect one nerve cell to another. Abstinence from smoking is essential, not only to avoid this systemic effect but also to reduce the ill-effects on the environment.
(a) (i) How is smoking the major cause of mortality? 2
(ii) What in a cigarette makes the people addicted to it? 1
(iii) What are neurotransmitters? 2
(iv) How does nicotine produce toxic effect? 2
(v) According to the experts, how is smoking linked to memory? 2
(b) Find words from the above passage which mean the same as: 3x1=3
(i) death (para 1)
(ii) energy / force (para 11)
(iii) endurance (para 13)
A2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
The first Olympics was held at Olympia in Greece in 776 BC. The prestige and glory of the Olympics spread far and wide. With the advent of Christianity the games lost their importance, as it was believed that they encouraged pagan worship in temples built to honour the Greek gods. It was Theodosius I who ordered the total destruction of the Olympia Sanctuary’s temples and other structures in the year 394 A.D., which ended the era of the ancient Olympic games.
It was due to the efforts of Baron de Coubertin that the modern Olympics of the modem era began in 1896 and were held every four years except during the two World Wars.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) was constituted in 1894. It had 15 representatives including Coubertin. The first Olympic medal was won by America’s James Connolly in triple jump. The Marathon was the most important event and was won by a Greek named Spiridon Louis.
Olympia is a small village situated near the west coast of the Peloponnese Peninsula of Greece. It is noted for its archaeological ruins which are related to the temples for worship of Greek gods and the ancient Olympic stadium.
The visitor is impressed by the grandiose ruins, which show temple founda- tions, ruins of the temple of Zeus, the tall columns, the altars and art objects that dot the site. Some of these objects are placed in the Archaeological museum. Another museum displays objects like stamps, photographs, documents, flags, maps and trophies belonging to the modern Olympics.
The games sought to bring various warring groups together in an atmosphere of friendly rivalry and competition. So a sacred truce would be called for the duration of the games that had assumed pan-hellenic importance.
Some of the events included in the games were foot-racing, wrestling, chariot racing and horse-racing. The names of the victors along with the name of events would be recorded for posterity. For the victors, it was the laurel wreath that was important as it signified their superior performance.
At the modem Olympics the sacred flame is lit at Olympia using sun power, by Greek maidens dressed in white. The event is presided over by a Greek priestess. The flame is then carried in a torch that travels across nations. The importance of the Olympic movement has been recognised over centuries as it brings people together in a spirit of friendly competition.
a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever net essary. 5
b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3
SECTION - B
(ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS)
B1. You are the General Manager of a Leading industriaI concern. You need a Chartered Accountant for your office. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in The Times of India, New Delhi, under the Classified columns. 5
You are Rakesh / Rave Head Boy / Head Girl of Oasis Public School, Bareilly. Draft a notice in lot more than 50 words for the school notice board, asking the students to give their names for taking pan in the Inter- Class Swimming Competition.
B2. You are Amrit / Anita of the Sigma Youth Organisation You witnessed the ghastly accident of the Punjab Mail at Bhusaval. Write a report, in 100-125 weeds, .of the disaster for your organization’s newsletter. 10
‘Eacb One Plant One’ campaign was organised by you to celebrate Vanamahotsava Day on 10th November. As Secretary of your school, Armada Public School, Delhi, write a report in 100-125 words for your school magazine. You are Ankit / Ankita of Deihi.
B3. You are Karthik / Krithika of Chennai. Of late, chain-snatching incidents are Increasing in the city Write a letter to the Editor of The New Indian Express drawing the attention of the concerned authorities Also give suggestions 10
You could not visit your sister at Nepal due to certain unavoidable cir cumstances. Write a letter to your sister explaining and regretting your in ability; You are Madhavan / Madhavi of Kochi, Kerala.
B4. ‘Games and sports should be made compulsory in schools.’ Do you agree? Write an article in 150-200 words to be published in a local daily. 10
‘Are we happier than our ancestors?’ Write an article in 150-200 words to be published in your school magazine.
C1. 1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
“I shot him dead because—
Because be was my foe
Just so: My foe of course he was:
That’s clear enough:”
a) Name the poem. 1
b) What did ‘I’ do? 2
c) What was ‘clear enough’? 2
There will be no thrice—
For then I find doors shut on me.
a) Name the poem. 1
b) Who is the poet talking to? 1
c) What will happen if ‘I’ go the third time? Why? 2
2. Answer the following in 30-40 words each: 3x2=6
a) What are the shackles that Tagore speaks of and why does be call them shackles of slumber?
b) Why does Wordsworth become sad when he thinks about the activities of man?
c) What does the poet want to convey by “beauty in small proportions” in ‘The Noble Nature’?
C2. Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: 5x2=10
a) What information about the girl did the waitress give to Mr. Gupta?
b) What was responsible for Box’s encounter with Cox?
c) Why is there a craze f machines in nations which have a long tradition of artistic excellence?
d) According to Bhai Parmanand, what is the worst punishment in jail? Why
e) For what two major charges did Edmund Burke want to impeach Warren Hastings?
C3. Answer the following in 125-150 words 10
What status did women enjoy in ancient India? Why were they among the most backward in the 18th and 19th centuries?
“India occupies a place second to no other country.” Why does Max Mueller say so? ExpIain.
C4. Answer the following in 125-150 words: 7
“The youth of a nation is always the fountainhead of its idealism.” Explain with reference to your lesson ‘Youth and the Tasks Ahead’.
Mrs. Wang had immense faith in humanity. Do you agree? Substantiate your answer with examples from the text.
C5. Answer the following in 30-40words each: 4x2=8
a) How did Baldwin manage to be loyal to Mr. Gresham without sacrif- icing his principles?
b) How has the media helped in spreading awareness about the capa- bilities of the challenged?
c) What were the banker’s fears when he realized that the lawyer was about to win the bet?
d) What had the narrator seen on the wall of his room? What was peculiar about it?