Chapter 1 - Resources And Development

Abiotic resources:- All those resources which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. Land, water, soil and minerals are some of the abiotic resources. Bad Land:- It is a land which is unsuitable for cultivation. Mainly soil erosion converts a fertile land into a bad land. Fallow Land:- It is a cultivable land which is being allowed to rest, outcropped or partially cropped for one or more seasons so that it can regain its fertility. Gully Erosion:- Gully erosion takes place when running water cuts deep ravines(deep narrow George) in the absence of vegetation. This type of erosion makes the soil unfit for cultivation.

Ravines:- This is a land which is unsuitable for cultivation due to soil erosion. Uncultivable land:- This land cannot be used for cultivation because of several reasons. Shelter belt:- Rows of trees which are planted in between the crops are known as shelter belts. Stocks:- These are the materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy the human needs, but could not be used as the human beings do not have the appropriate technology.

Q. 1. What is a Resources? Give two examples.

Ans. Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as Resource. Coal, water, air, minerals, etc. are some examples of resources.

Q.2.What is the role of humans in resource development?.


  1. Human beings interact with nature through technology, and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
  2. Human beings transfer materials available in our environment into resource, and use them.

Q.3.What is sheet erosion?

Ans.When the top layer of the soil is removed over a large area by the running water, it is called sheet erosion.

Q.4Which soil is well known for its capacity to hold moisture? Give reason.

Ans. Black soil. Because black soil is made up of extremely fine clayey material.

Q.5. How does over irrigation lead to land degradation?

Ans.Over irrigation degrades the land due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity of the soil.

Q.6What are shelter belts?

Ans.Rows of trees which are planted in between the crops are known as shelter belts.

Q.7.What is contour ploughing?

Ans. Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour ploughing.

Q.8.What is strip cropping?

Ans.Under strip cropping, large fields are divided into strips and different types of crops are grown on alternative strips along contours or across the prevailing direction of winds. This break up the force of the wind.

Q.9.What is leaching? Name the soils which develop due to leaching.

Ans.Leaching is a process by which the nutrients in the soil are washed away by heavy rains. Laterite soils develop due to leaching.