Q.6.Mention the steps taken by the French to dismantle Chinese influence on Vietnam.


1. They established French school for the Vietnamese. They wanted to replace Chinese language in school either by French or by Vietnamese.
2. Some policy makers emphasized the use of French language as the medium of instruction. They felt that through this the Vietnamese would learn about French culture and civilization.
3. In 1907, Tonkin Free School was set up to provide western style education to spread French culture.
4. In religion the French introduced Christianity in Vietnam and gave challenge to Confucianism, the Chinese religion followed by many Vietnamese.

Q.7Why and how were the Vietnamese used in the rat hunt in 1902-03?

Ans.In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck with bubonic plague. To prevent the invasion a rat hunt started. The French used Vietnamese workers for this and paid them for each rat they killed. Since the rats had to be caught in thousands, the whole situation was going out of hand. Since the dirty work was to be done only by the Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining. Another innovative method they took was they clipped only the tail of the rat to show as proof of killing and released the rat. So the process could be repeated. Some people began to raise rats to make money. Failing miserably in preventing the menace the French had to scrap the whole programme.

Q.8.Explain the political ideas of Phan Chu Trinh.

Ans.Phan Chu Trinh was a nationalist Vietnamese leader; he was intensely hostile to monarchy and was opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. He was profoundly influenced by the democratic ideals of the west. Phan Chu Trinh rejected revolutionary ideas of Phan Bio Chau. Unlike his he did not want to wholesale rejection of the western civilization. He was inspired by the French revolutionary ideals of the liberty and equality.

Q.9.What id referred as Scholars Revolt?

Ans.The Scholars Revolt of 1868 was an early revolt against French control and spread of Christianity. It was led by angry officials at the imperial court. They organized an uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces and killed nearly a thousand catholics.

OR 1. It was a movement which was led by officials at the imperial court in 1868. 2. The revolt was against the spread of Catholicism and French power in Vietnam. 3. More than 1000 catholics were killed in the revolt. 4. The French crushed the movement, but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them.

Q.10.What is the significance of Vietnamese Trail? How were supplies transported?

Ans.The Vietnamese trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads which moved through Laos and Cambodia that is from North to South. The trail was used to transport men and material during the course of Vietnamese war. The Trail was improved in 1950’s. From 1967 about 20,000 Vietnamese troops came to the south every month through the trail. It had support bases and hospitals all the way. Importance
1. The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the United States.
2. It symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources against the biggest military power.
3. The trail was used by about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops who came to the south each month using this trail.

Q.11.How was education used as a weapon by the Vietnamese to fight against the colonialism?


1. Vietnamese teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum framed by the French. Sometimes there was open opposition and at other times, there was silence resistance. As the number of teachers increased in the lower classes they quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated.
2. When a Vietnamese girl was terminated over the issue of front seat the whole school protested, and forced the authorities to take her back. It was a victory for the education class.
3. Students were inspired by patriotic feelings. By the 1920s students were forming various political parties.
4. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. On the other hand, the educated class wanted to use education as a mean to fight against the colonial rule