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CBSE Important Questions

CBSE Guess > Papers > Important Questions > Class XII > 2007 > Geography > Geography By Mr. Suryaveer Singh

Fundamental of Human Geography

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Nature and Scope of Human Geography 3 marks: 1 question.
Very short Answer Questions of 3 Marks each

  1. Mention the approach in the study of human geography followed by:-
    a. F.Ratzel and E.C.Semple, Huntington.
    b. Lucian Febvre and Vidal de la Blache.
    c. Griffith Taylor
    d. B.J.L.Berry and David Harvey and William Bunge.
    e. D.M.Smith and David Harvey.
  2. State any three recent approaches adopted in the study of Human Geography.
  3. State any three characteristics of Determinism and Possibilism approaches in the study human geography.
  4. Explain three closely linked tasks which human geography has to perform in line with geography as a whole.
  5. Mention the three groups and six types of essential facts according to Jean Brunhes which the human geography studies.
  6. In which two parts has the subject of geography divided by Bernhard Varenius? State two features of each part.
  7. Which are the three core points of the definition of human geography given by Ratzel?
  8. Mention the two broad sections of human geography divided by Finch and Trewartha? State two features of each section.
  9. Mention three types of physical conditions and their human responses according to Huntington.

The World Population: Trends and Patterns
Population Composition 5 marks: 1 question.
Long Answer Questions of 5 marks each

  1. Describe five factors which are responsible for the uneven distribution and density of population in the world. (OR)
    How do physical factors affect the distribution and density of population in the world? Explain five factors with suitable examples. (OR)
    How do economic and political factors affect the distribution of population in the world? Explain two factors for each with suitable examples.
  2. Describe four major areas of high population density in the world.
  3. Describe five different types of areas of low density of population in the world.
  4. Explain three factors/components responsible for causing spatial change in the population growth in the world. How is the trend in population growth of developed countries different from the developing countries? 3 + 2 = 5
  5. Describe five categories (types) of population growth identified under Demographic Transition Model in the world.
  6. Define the term
    a. Arithmetic population density
    b. Physiological or nutritional density.
    c. Population growth
    d. Population distribution
  7. Define the term age structure. Describe three types of age structures identified on the basis of variations in the proportions of children and aged in the world.
  8. Define the term age pyramid. What does the shape of the age pyramids indicates? Describe three kinds of shapes of age pyramids associated with the three kinds of population situation in the world.
  9. Define the term literacy. Explain four factors which affect literacy rates in the world.
  10. Define the term sex ratio. Why is sex ratio unbalanced in the world? Explain four reasons with suitable examples.
  11. What is the meaning of occupational structure? Explain with examples the four group of occupational structure found in the world.
  12. Define the term ‘Human Development’. Describe the three indicators which form the basis of calculating the Human Development Index (HDI). Name two countries forming the highest and the lowest ranks each in the HDI.

Human Activities-Primary
Secondary Activities-Manufacturing
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities. 10 marks: 3 questions
Very Short Answer & Short Answer question of 3 & 4 Marks

  1. What is foraging? State the four characteristics of foragers and hunters.
  2. Explain how the agriculture revolution changed the lives of the people. Give three examples.
  3. Explain how the industrial revolution affected the countries of the world.
  4. Explain the four groups of economic activities. Give four features of each.
  5. Distinguish between Pastoral Nomadism and commercial livestock rearing by stating three points of difference of each.
  6. What is pastoral nomadism? State its four characteristics.
  7. What is commercial livestock rearing? State its four characteristics.
  8. What is transhumance? State its four features.
  9. Explain four factors which influence mining activities in the world.
  10. Why is underground mining very risky? Give three reasons.
  11. State three factors which determine the cost of mining activity in the world.
  12. Give uses of bauxite. Why aluminium production is concentrated mainly in the developed countries?
  13. Explain any three features of shifting cultivation in the world.
  14. Explain any three features of plantation agriculture in the world.
  15. Explain any three features of subsistence agriculture in the world.
  16. Explain any three features of commercial agriculture in the world.
  17. How do temperature and rainfall affect the crop distribution in the world? Explain the role of these factors with suitable examples.
  18. Describe the importance of relief and soil factors in influencing the pattern of agricultural activities.
  19. Describe the importance of socio-economic institutions in influencing crop production.
  20. Mention the three traditional subsistence agriculture systems in the world. State two features of each.
  21. Define hunger. Mention four indicators used in estimating global hunger.
  22. Explain three reasons of widespread starvation in the world.
  23. Define the term food security. Give four measures of achieving food security in the world.____________________________________________________
  24. Name three groups of industries of the world classified on the basis of their size and write one characteristics and example of each group. OR
    Distinguish between cottage industries and small scale industries by stating four points each.
  25. Name three groups of industries of the world classified on the basis of their raw material and write one characteristics and example of each group.
  26. Name three groups of industries of the world classified on the basis of their ownership and write one characteristics and example of each group.
  27. Explain four geographical and non-geographical factors which influence the location of the industries at a place in the world.
  28. Explain four factors associated with the assembly, processing and distribution of materials and products which influence the location of an industry.
  29. Explain government policies, environment, industrial inertia and human factor in influencing the location of an industry.
  30. Mention any three changes that have occurred in the industrial activities around the world.
  31. Explain two broad types of flexibility in the industrial production. State two advantages and disadvantages of each.
  32. What are footloose industries? Give four examples of it. State four advantages of locating these industries on the edge of towns and cities.
  33. How are services different from manufacturing?
  34. State four major components groups of services in the world.
  35. Why employment in the service sector has increased in the developed countries? Explain by giving four reasons.
  36. What are advanced services? Give four examples of it. Why have these services scattered location around the globe? Explain three reasons.
  37. What are Quaternary activities? State three importance of quaternary activities.
  38. How has information technology helped in the development of Quaternary activities in the world? Explain three reasons.

Transport and Communication
International Trade 10 marks: 3 Questions.
Very Short Answer & Short Answer question of 3 & 4 Marks

  1. Explain the four factors on which the choice of mode of transportation depends.
  2. State any four advantages of road transport. (OR) Explain why the freight transport by road is becoming important in comparison to rail transport.
  3. What are highways? Describe the importance of highways by giving three examples from different parts of the world.
  4. State three advantages of railways.
  5. State three factors which contribute in the growth of railways in the world.
  6. State any four recent developments which resulted in the competitiveness of railways around the world.
  7. What are Transcontinental Railways? Name three important transcontinental railways in the world. Give two characteristics of each.
  8. State any four advantages of water transport.
  9. State any four advantages of inland water transport.
  10. Why the inland waterways have lost importance in some part of the world? Explain three reasons.
  11. State four factors on which the development of inland waterways depend.
  12. Explain three methods how the inland waterways have been developed in many parts of the world despite inherent limitations.
  13. Describe three important inland waterways of the world.
  14. Explain any four developments made in improving the efficiency of ocean transport in the world.
  15. Mention three limitations and advantages of air transport in the world.
  16. Describe three advantages of internet in the field of world communications.
  17. State three advantages of communication systems developed in the world.
  18. State the importance of satellites in the field of world communication.
  19. What is international trade? State the three bases of international trade in the world.
  20. What is balance of trade? Explain the three components of international trade.
  21. What is balance of trade? Give difference between favourable balance of trade and negative balance of trade.
  22. What are the two types of international trade? Give two characteristics of each.
  23. Explain three changes that have occurred in the composition of world trade.
  24. What are trading blocs? Explain three effects of which the membership of a country depends.
  25. What are regional trading blocs? Explain the importance of regional trading blocs in international trade with suitable examples.

Human Settlements 5 marks 1 question
Long Answer Question of 5 Marks each

  1. Describe five main problems associated with the urban settlements in the developing countries of the world.
  2. What are rural settlements? Explain two types of rural settlement patterns based on form found in different parts of the world. Give four characteristics of each.
  3. Describe three types of rural settlement pattern based on structure found in different parts of the world. Give four characteristics of each.
  4. What are urban settlements? Explain four common bases of classification of urban settlements found in the world.
  5. Explain five classifications of towns and cities based on functions found in different parts of the world.
  6. Define the term urbanization. Explain the differences in the urbanization between world’s developed countries and developing countries. State four differences.
  7. What are squatter settlements? State four characteristics of squatter settlements found in different parts of the world.
  8. How are slums different from the squatter settlements? Give three differences.

Map work 2 Marks 4 items to Identify from the map given

  1. Country having highest density(Most populated) of population -
    Mauritius, Singapore, Netherlands, Puerto Rico.
  2. Country having lowest density (Least populated) of population –
    Mongolia, Norway, Namibia, Bolivia, Canada, Australia
  3. Country with highest growth rate – Liberia
  4. Most urbanized country – United Kingdom
  5. Least urbanized country – Bangladesh
  6. Coal producing country – United Kingdom, China, South Africa, Peru.
  7. Oil producing country – Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Ural region, Colombia.
  8. Sugarcane growing country – Cuba, Brazil.
  9. Coffee producing country – Ethiopia, Brazil
  10. Rice producing country – China, Indonesia
  11. Wheat producing country – Great Plains of USA, Argentina, Ukraine, Russia.
  12. Tea producing country – Kenya, China, Argentina, Italy.
  13. Copper producing country – Zambia
  14. Banana producing country – Dominican Republic
  15. Software Tech Parks, Airports, Sea ports, Global cities –
    Sao Paulo, San Francisco, London, Paris, Moscow, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, New York, Hong Kong, Mexico city, Panama, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, Colombo, Perth, Sydney.
Geography Links
1. Fundamental of Human Geography

India - People and Economy

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