(a) Draw a cross-section of udder and label its parts. (2 Marks)
(b) Complete the sentences with appropriate words:
Milk synthesis takes place in the ___________ where the milk secreting cells in the mammary gland are provided with a continuous supply of nutrients. (1/2 Marks)
About ______________ liters of blood had to flow through the udder to produce one liter of milk.(1/2 Marks)
(c) Explain the steps or process of milk letdown(2 Marks)
(a) What is the principal of machine milking? (1 Marks)
(b) Name three methods of hand milking. Explain the methodology of any one. (2 Marks)
(c) What are the characteristics of Clean Milk? (1 Marks)
(a) What are the principle constituents of Milk? (1 Marks)
(b) What is the difference between cow and buffalo Milk? (1 Marks)
(c) A milk containing 3.5% fat, 4.5% lactose and 4% protein will supply ___________ calories of energy per 100gm of milk.
(d) Identify any two manage mental factors affecting the fat content of the milk and explain its effects on milk fat content.
(a) Enlist the different methods of chilling milk at a farm.(2 Marks)
(b) Define Homogenization Of Milk. What are its advantages and disadvantages?(2 Marks)
(c) Draw a flow chart indicating stages of operation for processing of market milk.(2 Marks)
(a) Name any four milk packaging materials.(1 Marks)
(b) Draw a flow chart of steps involved in packaging of milk in a pouch.(2 Marks)
(c) List out the advantages and disadvantages of bottles as the milk packaging material.(1 Marks)
(a) Classify the different types of spoilage of milk based on the organisms Involved and the sings of spoilage.(2 Marks)
(b) Enlist the four basic principles of co - operation. Specify the functions of
Village level society.(4 Marks)(a) How is milk marketed in urban areas of our country? (2 Marks)
(b) List different systems of milk collection being adopted in the country. Which of these systems is the best system and why? (3 Marks)
(a) For grading the raw milk, what type of tests is conducted? List any 2 of the
Organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests conducted at chilling center.(3 Marks)
(b) For improving the keeping quality of milk which treatments are given to it?
Explain the objectives/purposes of clarification and bactofugation of milk.
(a) Define recombined milk. How is it different from reconstituted milk? (2 Marks)
(b) Give the flow diagram for the manufacturing of double toned milk.
(3 Marks) What is the importance of the following in the quality of ice - cream? (6×1=6 Marks)
(i) Balanced mix
(ii) Ageing of the mix
(iii) Homogenization of mix
(iv) Stabilizers and emulsifiers
Explain the role of the following in the quality of butter:
(i) Neutralization of cream
(ii) Pasteurization of cream
(iii) Ripening of cream
(iv) Ageing of cream
(v) Addition of salt
(vi) Working of butter Write the AGMARK standard for special grade of ghee on all - India basis. (5 Marks)
Write the PFA standard for plain ice - cream.
Write briefly on any two of the following : (3+3 Marks)
(ii) Lepromin test
(iii) Bacillary dysenteryWrite short notes on any three of the following; (3+3+3 Marks)
(i) Shick test
(ii) Catalase test
(iii) Swarming growth
(iv) Laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.