**1.** Define the following terms:

**a) **molarity

**b)** molality

**c)** mole fraction

**d)** mass%

**e)** volume %

**f)** parts per million

**g)** azeotrope.

**2.** What is the effect of temperature on the molarity of the solution ?

**3.** molality, mole fraction, and mass% are independent of temperature. Why?

**4.** What is the effect of temperature on the solubility of

**a)** solid in a liquid

**b)** gas in a liquid ?

**5.** State Henry’s law. Give the mathematical expression for the law.

**6.** Mention three applications of Henry’s law.

**7.** State Raoult’s law for a solution containing two volatile solvents. Give the mathematical expression for the law.

**8.** Derive the mathematical expression to show that the relative lowering of vapor

pressure of a solution containing a nonvolatile solute and a volatile solvent is equal to

the mole fraction of the solute.

**9. **Mention the condition where Raoult’s law becomes a special case of Henry’s law.

**10.** What are ideal solutions? Mention the conditions for a solution to behave ideally.Draw a graph of vapor pressure vs mole fraction for an ideal solution.

**11. **What are non ideal solutions? Mention the conditions for a solution to behave non ideally.

**12.** Explain the type of deviation exhibited by a mixture of

**a)** ethanol and acetone

**b)** acetone and chloroform.

**c)** phenol and aniline. Draw a graph of vapor pressure vs mole
fraction in each case.

**13.** What do you mean by the terms

**a)** maximum boiling azeotrope

**b)** minimum boiling azeotrope. Give one example each.

**14.** What are colligative properties? Give four examples.

**15.** Explain the following colligative properties with suitable graphs.

**a) **elevation of boiling point

**b)** depression of freezing point.

**16.** Define Kf and Kb. Give mathematical expression to show that Kf and Kb depends on the nature of the solvent.

**17.** Define osmosis and osmotic pressure. Why is osmotic pressure method is considered as a better method when compared to other colligative properties to determine molar mass of the solute.

**18.** What is reverse osmosis? Mention one application of the same.

**19.** What do you mean by abnormal molar mass? How does it occur due to

**a)** association of solute?

**b)** dissociation of solute?

**20.** What is Van’t Hoff factor i? Give its value for

**a)** association of solute.

**b) **dissociation of solute.

**c)** solute which is neither associates nor dissociates

**21.** Which is more concentrated? 1 molar or 1 molal solution. Why?

**22.** What do you mean by the terms

**a)** isotonic solution.

**b)** hypertonic solution

**c)** hypotonic solution?

**23.** Account for the following:

**a)** intravenous injection is given by using 0.9% NaCl (mass/volume) solution.

**b)** Dried fruits and vegetables swell when kept in fresh water.

**c)** The tanks used by scuba divers are diluted with helium.

**d)** Mountain climbers sometimes get symptoms of a condition known as anoxia.

**e)** Calcium chloride is added to clear the roads covered by snow.

**f)** Raw mango placed in concentrated salt solution shrivel in to pickle.

**g)** People suffering from high blood pressure are advised to take minimum quantity of salty food.

**h)** People taking lot of salty food get affected by edema.

**i)** Meat is preserved by salting and fruits are preserved by adding sugar.

**24**. What will happen when a blood cell is placed in

**a)** solution having NaCl concentration less than 0.9%(mass/volume)

**b)** solution having NaCl concentration higher than 0.9%(mass/volume)?

Submitted By : Mr. R. Srinivas Vasudevamurthy

Email: vasudm@yahoo.co.uk